Hungarian higher education has represented academic excellence for more than 600 years. The first university in Hungary was founded in 1367 in Pécs, located in the southern region of Hungary. Today there are 67 higher education institutions in Hungary ranging from top research universities to minor colleges. These universities and colleges are financed either by the state, private organizations or a church.
Hungary joined the Bologna Process in 1999 by signing the Bologna Declaration with 28 other countries with a view to establishing the European Higher Education Area by 2010. The key objectives of the process are:
In accordance with the objectives of the Bologna process the degree structure of tertiary education is based on three cycles. Nearly all study fields lead first to a Bachelor’s degree (usually 3 years), and after a further study period to a Master’s degree (2 years). However, there are some exceptions: medicine, pharmacy, dental and veterinary studies, architecture, law, teacher training, and certain arts-, crafts- and design-related study programmes, which retain a long single-cycle structure of 5 or 6 years of study.
The first-cycle programmes last 6–8 semesters (3–4 years, 180–240 credit points) and lead to a Bachelor’s degree (in Hungarian: alapfokozat). The second cycle, leading to a Master’s degree (in Hungarian: mesterfokozat), lasts 2–4 semesters (1–2 years, 60–120 credit points).
Due to the expansion of higher education in the last two decades, the number of enrolled students and the capacity of the institutions have increased considerably; from 1990 to 2015 the student population in higher education tripled, from 90,000 to around 300,000.
Most of the students chose economic sciences, followed by engineering, teacher training, IT, medical and health sciences. The trend among international students is rather similar; the most popular field was economics, prior to engineering, medicine and IT.
A four-year doctoral programme (doktori képzés) is a post-graduate course to follow any Master’s or equivalent qualification.
The European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) is the only existing credit system in Hungary, initially implemented in the academic year 2003-2004. It ensures transparency of the learning, teaching and assessment processes by facilitating recognition of learning achievements and qualifications in many countries throughout the European Higher Education Area.
The Diploma Supplement (DS, in Hungarian: oklevélmelléklet) has been issued by higher education institutions since July 2003. Since 2006, all higher education institutions have provided the document automatically and free of charge both in Hungarian and English and/or in the language of an ethnic minority. The DS contains all information about the qualification and the degree programme and provides a short description of the subjects taught.
According to the Higher Education Act, admission for Bachelor’s degree programmes and some long-term Master’s degree programmes is selective. The minimum requirement for admission to these degree programmes is a secondary school leaving certificate or its non-Hungarian equivalent. There are a few programmes where practical examinations or tests are also required. Higher education studies are financed either by the state or by the students themselves. International students wishing to attend a full degree course in Hungary should contact the National Higher Education Admissions Office for more information.
Hungarian Institutions of Higher Education
Internationalisation is becoming an essential part of the development strategies of most Hungarian higher education institutions. As a result, they are becoming more and more active in international cooperation, offering a number of double and joint degree programmes, R&D projects, and academic partnerships within Europe and throughout the world. Currently, more than 30 Hungarian higher education institutions offer academic programmes in foreign languages, making a combined total of 315 courses.
More information: http://www.studyinhungary.hu/study-in-hungary/menu/universities.html
The new ranking of the British Times Higher Education newspaper was published on 4 December 2014. It includes only institutions in countries classified as „emerging economies” by FTSE, including the “BRICS” nations of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.
On the 55th place is Semmelweis University with 29.1 points, while on the 67th place is the University of Debrecen reached 26.7 points out of 100.
The methodology of the ranking is the following: five main missions of the universities are evaluated The three most important are the teaching conditions, research and the quotations of the publications. Innovation and international outlook of teaches and students are also examined.
For more information about Hungarian higher education please visit the following websites: